ITAIPU Power Conversion Dam Project, pictures and data of dam of ITAIPU Conversion Inside the dam, electrical generating set, control station Electrical Power AC-DC conversion, 500 KV switches, HV-Power line.                               by Stefan Krauter Principle of energy conversion at hydro power plants:The potential energy given by the water stored in the lake at a certain height above the outlet. This energy is converted into cinetic energy by letting it flow down the tubes. This cinetic energy is given to the blades of the water tubine which transform it into a mechanical rotation. This rotation is used to drive the electric generatores. The electicity is generated by moving magnetic fields along conducting coils. At ITAIPU the total potential energy of the usuable part of the lake is given by: Wpot = 0.5 (hul +hip) (hul -hip)* g * A * r hul= height of upper level (222 m) hip= height of penstock inlet (187 m) g= acceleration of free fall (9.81 m/s²) A= area of lake (1350 km²) r = density of water (1000 kg/m³)   Wpot,abs = 9,48 * 1016 J = 94,8 PJ The upper result is related to sea level, while the head of the penstock is 118.4 m only, the used potential energy is: Wpot = 5,49 * 1016 J = 54,9 PJ The water intake of one single 715 MW Francis-turbine is 700 m³/s, its weighted efficiency is 93.8 %. So with the lake filled up the turbines can produce 13 400 GWh until the penstock inlet is out of water (if no water follows), which means 44 days full power operation of the plant. The generators have an efficiency of 98.6 %, while the 50 Hz types with 66 poles have a rated output of 823.6 MVA at (90.9 rounds per minute) and a power factor of 0.85, the 60 Hz types with 78 poles have a rated output of 737 MVA (at 92.3 rounds per minute) and a power factor of 0,95. The output voltages are both 18 kV. Each year ITAPU generates 75-77 TWh of electricity and avoids 67.5 million tons of carbondioxide emissions. Inside the ITAIPU Powerhouse Dimensions: length: 986 m, maximum height: 112 m and width: 99m. The red line on the floor indicates the border of Brazil and Paraguay. One 715 MW electrical generator The diameter of the rotor is almost 16 m, the rotating mass is 2 650 t ITAIPU - biggest power plan on Earth - 120   The control center of the 18 generators Left half of it (in Brazil) controls the 60 Hz units, right half  (in Paraguay) controls the 50 Hz units.